What are the classifications of loaders? The classification and use of loaders
Nov 15 , 2021

The classification and use of loaders

Commonly used single-bucket loaders are classified according to engine power, transmission mode, walking system structure, and loading mode.

1. Engine power:

Small wheel loader with power less than 74kw.

②It is a medium-sized loader with a power of 74~147kw

③The power of 147~515kw is a large loader

④Extra-large loader with power greater than 515kw

2. Transmission form:

①Hydraulic-mechanical transmission, low impact and vibration, long service life of transmission parts, convenient operation, automatic adjustment of vehicle speed and external load, generally used in medium and large loaders;

②Hydraulic transmission: stepless speed regulation, easy operation, but poor startability, generally only used on small loaders;

③Electric drive: stepless speed regulation, reliable work, simple maintenance, high cost, generally used on large loaders.

3. Walking structure:

①Tire type: light weight, fast speed, flexible maneuverability, high efficiency, not easy to damage the road surface, large ground contact pressure, poor passability, but it is widely used;

②Crawler type: small ground pressure, good passability, low center of gravity, good stability, strong adhesion, high traction, high specific cutting force, low speed, relatively poor flexibility, high cost, and easy to damage the road surface when walking.

4. Loading and unloading methods:

①Front unloading type: simple structure, reliable work, good vision, suitable for various work sites, and widely used;

②Rotary type: The working device is installed on a 360° turntable, and the side unloading does not require a U-turn. The work efficiency is high, but the structure is complex, the quality is high, the cost is high, and the side stability is poor. It is suitable for smaller venues.

③ Rear unloading type: front loading, rear unloading, high work efficiency, poor work safety.

Selection principle of loader model

1. The choice of model: It is mainly selected and determined according to the operating occasion and purpose. Generally, when working in quarries and soft bases, tire loaders with snow chains are often used; 2. Power selection: Generally, diesel engines for construction machinery are generally used. For operations in special areas, such as places with altitudes higher than 3000m, special high-prototype diesel engines should be used;

3. Selection of transmission type: hydraulic-mechanical transmission is generally used. The key component is the choice of torque converter form. Loaders produced in China mostly use twin-turbo, single-stage, two-phase torque converters.

4. When selecting a loader, the braking performance of the loader must be fully considered, including multiple brakes, parking brakes and emergency brakes. There are three types of brakes: shoe type, caliper disc type and wet multi-disc type. The driving mechanism of the brake generally adopts an afterburner, and its power source has three types: compressed air, air cap oil and hydraulic. Commonly used is the air-cap oil braking system, and generally adopts a dual-circuit braking system to improve driving safety.

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